Monday, 1 November 2010

Inspirational Director

 Inspirational Director

As my Inspirational Director, I decided to choose M Night Shyamlan (Manoj Nelliyattu Shyamalan), who although not specifically a  horror film director he has produced/Directed/Written Psychological Horrors/Thrillers.

His Notable films are as follows:
·        Praying with Anger
·        Wide Awake
·         The Sixth Sense
·        Unbreakable
·        Signs
·        The Village
·        Lady in the Water
·        The Happening
·         The Last Airbender
·        Devil
·         Thousand A.E.

  Shyamalan is an Indian/American film director who is known for a number of films from the horror genre.
The most notable films that Shyamalan has produced are, The Sixth Sense, Signs, and The Happening.
He was born in India on August 6th 1970, his father,  Nelliyattu C. Shyamalan was a Physician his mother, Jayalakshmi, specialising in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Before Shyamalan was born his parents moved to the United States, however his mother returned briefly for 11 months, 6th of which she spent in India after Shyamalan was born, they then moved to Pennsylvania in America. 
Night is known for filming a lot of his films around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he was raised.
He has been compared to other famous film directors such as Steven Spielberg, and Alfred Hitchcock. 
Shyamalan is known for his modern supernatural plots that peak with a twist ending. 
His also known for Writing, Producing, and Directing his films as well as staring in them.
 The Sixth Sense 
The Sixth Sense was his first financially successful film. 
The film went on to receive a number of Oscars which included Best Director, and Best Picture.  
The film was Written and Directed by M. Night Shyamalan, it was released towards the end of Summer, Shyamalan also admitted that he didn’t think that the film would do very well, only hoping to make back the cost of production.  

Signs was Shyamalan’s 3rd Successful film after Unbreakable, it was well liked by the critics gaining over $600 million at the box office with a budget of only $40 million.
It was nominated for six Academy Awards.
Shyamalan played a small part in this movie as Ray Reddy
The twist at the end of this film was the possibility of killing the aliens just by using water

The Happening
The Happening is a 2008 thriller/horror film which was Written, produced and Directed by Shyamalan.

The film is about a man and his family who try to escape from a bizarre natural disaster, a substance which causes those who come into contact with it to commit suicide.

The film grossed $163,403,799 at the box office. With a budget of $48 million making it a financial success.

The film did however receive mostly negative reviews from film critics.

M. Night Shyamalan is credited  as playing the part of Joey even though the character did not appear in the film.

I knew the moment it happened, it was a miracle. I could have been kissing her when she threw up. It would have scarred me for life. I may never have recovered.

When they see those fourteen lights, they're looking at a miracle. And deep down, they feel that whatever's going to happen, there will be someone there to help them. And that fills them with hope. 

Movies will end up being this esoteric art form, where only singular people will put films out in a small group of theatres.


Some people have accused him of being a One-Trick-Pony who over uses the idea of twist elements, although it is his traditional style and what he has now become known for.
Shyamalan has also been accused of plagiarism, such as the similarities of Signs and Robert McIlhinney screenplay, Lord of the Barrens which was unpublished.
Also The Village was stated for having similarities to Margaret Peterson Haddix  novel called Running Out of Time.


Plot Outline
       A small group of friends are at a party in the middle of the woods. Something at the part happens when the antagonist (killer) is ignored and shunned by a girl he is trying to impress, the antagonist was obssessed with the girl and after seeing her with someone else this obsession develops into anger.
•   When the party was over every went their seperate ways and the girl left with her boyfriend, it was late about this time (1am) and therefore it was very dark, after leaving the party the couple begin to get the feeling they are being followed.
       Girl and boy go home and campaign of  terror begins. They are tormented in a number of ways, with small things to begin with, then big things before he tries to kill both of them. The torment occurs with a range of items in their home going missing, problems with the electricity, the feeling of being watched, and noises being heard around the home.
       The killer and the girl’s boyfriend will have a confrontation when he tries to protect his girl. The boyfriend will die, but the girl will survive by killing the psychopath (antagonist).

Killer Tactics

 The killer uses fear to weaken their victims and then kills by using anything he has to hand which makes him even more deadly since it is not so easy to prevent him from killing. Objects that he would use in the film include, bricks, a Knife (used to kill the male lead character; Jack), and broken glass from a window he has smashed. 

The killer uses a number of scare tactics, such as the use of noises, prank calls, even cutting off the electricity when he gains access to inside the house. The killer will make himself hidden with the aid of a white mask.

Post Pitch Analysis

The original intention was to have the killer follow someone back to a house, however it was soon discovered that there were a number of problems not covered with this idea. Also it was unknown how exactly the killer would torment its victim.

The original ideas and basic plotline was:
       A small group of people are on their way back from a party in the middle of the woods when one of them gets the sense that they are being followed…
       Later the same night they go home with the belief they have been followed, therefore trying to lock all doors and windows, however no one else has seen anyone following them.
       The person who first assumed they were being followed believes they are in fact psychic and can see the past, present & future.
       The group of friends are constantly harassed by an unknown assailant who repeatedly bangs on the doors and windows, whenever someone dares to have a look there is no one there.
       The person who first mentions about being followed turns on the group of friends in a moment of madness, they have had a history of psychological mental health problems although they seemed normal.

  Possible locations where I could film my trailer include. Around the area of Ruislip and the Ruislip Woods area, also possibly the Rickmansworth area as it is a rural town with woodland, Northolt Park or even Holland Park also to film on.


Problems Encounted
 There were a number of different problems that I encounted when using the idea of the hounse setting, one major problems was reconising the possible events that could happen in the house. Items in the house also had to be moved to ensure continuity could be achieved for the filming of the trailer.

After Audience Feedback
Feedback from the pitch was mainly positive, however there were a number of plot holes that needed to be attended to so that the whole plot idea and story worked out. Problems had arisen in terms of the overall plotline such as, how the killer would develop the urge to kill someone else, what the reason would be behind it- would be as all killers need a motive?; this was acknowledged by making the killer jealous of someone else’s girlfriend.

Areas which would remain the same in terms of the plot would be the party at the beginning of the trailer, also another area which would remain the same is the idea of the victims leaving the party and going home.
 However the differences with the plot would be the fact that the party will be in celebration for Halloween, at the party a girl that the killer is obsessed with is shunned when he trys to make a move on her, later he sees this girl with someone else, later the girl and boy go home and the terror campaign begins, possible tactics the killer uses include throwing bricks and thinks through the window but also the killer has gained entrance into the house, but instead of killing them straight away he uses a number of terror tactics, such as stealing valued items after which throwing them back at the distressed couple.

Media Pitch

The following is a media pitch presentation describing initial ideas for the outline of the film.

Conducting the Pitch I hoped to gain an understanding of some of the key areas and ideas that I should  use in my trailer, conducting a pitch also helped me to build on my pre-existing ideas as they were somewhat vague, although there were a number of ideas that I had presented.

Conventions of Movie Trailers, Posters, & Magazine Front Covers

The following is a list of the codes and conventions that are traditionally followed when producing Trailers, Posters & Magazine front covers.

Movie Magazine Covers: A number of conventions are traditionally followed when producing a movie magazine, the most prominent of these conventions that is very strictly followed is the presence of a Masthead at the top of the page, usually either in the centre or on the prominent left-hand third. The idea of a Masthead is to remain constant so that brand identity can be created. Magazines also usually ensure that they keep to the same style and format each issue with only the content changing. Magazine covers usually always have some sell-lines, although the number always varies. Colours used on front covers are traditionally kept to just the primary colours, and just using a limited number of different colours.

Magazine covers usually always show an image which is relevant to a film possibly being released, it is also more than likely to be there main article for that issue. Men in general tend to dominante movie magazine front covers, this is confirmed after analysing different covers. Not always considered to feature on magazine covers however more frequently present on movie magazines, are the use of 'Puffs' or 'Banners' designed to give the audience something for their eyes to look at- perhaps relating to a deal.

Movie Posters: Movie posters, just like magazines are there to draw in a potential audience to see your film. This is even more true when talking about movie posters, which are one of the studio companies main ways of selling the film and entice its audience in. Therefore movie posters particularly have to be eye catching and stand out among the rest, achieving this requires the need to use minimal text and use more imagery, iconography and colours. Usually film posters use their main character on the front of the poster, with horror films this is always either the antagonist (killer) or the protagonist (central character, where the plot develops around).

When featuring the antagonist on the front of the poster they are usually shown to me powerful/dominant, they are usually always hidden behind a mask or their face may be darkened. The antagonist is usually pictured to be in distress/alert or fearful of something (likely to be the protagonist). Darker colours are usually used for horror film posters to convey the mood of the film. Also present on the movie poster is the tagline which is usually at the top of the poster with a message giving a posible insight into what the film may be about.

Always present on a movie poster is the title of the film, this is usually written towards the bottom middle of the poster however it may also be placed at the top of the poster. The reason for placing the title towards the bottom of the page is because this is where audiences generally look first. Production companies and studios also like to have their logo on the poster towards the bottom corners. Credits generally also feature on posters although this is not always the case especially with early release posters. Finally posters also feature either the date when a film is released or perhaps text along the lines of 'Coming Soon'.

Movie Trailer: Unlike Posters & Magazines the codes and conventions of movie trailers are more flexible, considering that differnt genres will have slightly different conventions when producing film trailers.

In general film trailers always feature a number of different straps, these give information a bout the film, such as, the title, director/producers involved and if they are well known in relation to other horror films, also the straps may give general information on the narrative of the trailer. The beginning of a movie trailer usually involves studio/production company logos, before a shot which will then set the scene for the rest of the trailer. Trailers in the horror genre tend to build on tension already created, and therefore the speed of the editting in a trailer usually speeds up as it gets towards the end, before slowing back down again.

Also elements such as mise-en-scene have to be followed, such as the use of objects suitable to the genre e.g. weapons, also the use of the correct camera angles and shots suitable for the message trying to be conveyed. At the very end of a film trailer there will sometimes feature a teaser shot known as a 'Sting' giving an additional scare for the audience.

Questionnaire Analysis

Two different sets of questionnaires were performed on two different cross sections of people. The first one was a general questionnaire conducted on 5 people giving an overview of people’s horror film interests and how often they watch movie trailers and how they watch them. The second questionnaire was based on responses from a focus group comprising of 6 different horror film enthusiasts.

General Questionnaire
To enable me to recognise the different aspects such as their likes and dislikes relating to different areas of the horror genre I conducted a general horror questionnaire from a sample of 5 different people, the questionnaire was anonymous although I did ask participants to state what age range they fall under. 

1.       What Gender are you?

The gender questionnaire was useful because it help me to recognise what gender horror may be more popular with, from then knowing whether one particular gender enjoys horror more than the other may have its uses when creating my horror trailer. Although since the audience was chosen I cannot assume one gender enjoys horror more than the other, however when relating to the other questions it may be useful. The following is the chart showing the percentage who were male and the percentage of people taking part who were female, it clearly shows that more men took part in the questionnaire specifically 3 men and 2 women.

2.    2. What age range do you fall into?

This question was based on the age ranges of the people who took part, knowing this information is important since it will give me an idea of the typical ages that people enjoy horror films. The results of the age range will be useful in conjunction with the other questions from the analysis such as the type of horror films they enjoy; it will then give me an idea of what type of horror films I should make for my target audience. Based on the results below it shows how everyone who took part in the questionnaire were between the ages of 16 and 24, this suggests that I should ensure I target my trailer to these age ranges particularly. Horror is usually always more popular with younger audiences, and these results prove this.

3.       What is your favourite of type of Horror Films?

This question was very important because it helped me to understand the best horror film genre of horror I should use to base my film on, usually among younger audience members horror sub-genres such as Slasher are more popular, and these results prove this, however supernatural also ranked highly.

4.       What is your favourite horror film? &  5.       Why is this film one of your favourites?

The answers to these questions were written on the questionnaire and the respondents were allowed to list more than one, films people listed included, films from the Final Destination franchise, and also some of the Saw films were also listed, along with Signs, The Sixth Sense, Scream, and Texas Chainsaw Massacre. The responses for choosing these films were that they thought the films were different (original) than any other films, they enjoyed the scare which they got from the film, other responses were also slightly inconclusive such as one person who said that they thought this film was a classic, perhaps meaning that it was original. Based on these responses I now have an idea of what type of plotline I should write for my film based on ideas from these films, e.g. how originality is achieved.

6.       Where do you usually watch Horror films?

I allowed all respondents on this question to select more than one answer if they would like too since some people may view horror films at home and at the cinema, the ‘other’ responses were nonexistence although I included this just in case people viewed films in other ways, perhaps at a friend’s house. The following answers below suggest that most people questioned would go to the cinema to view horror films, although around a third still watch them at home.

7.       How often do you watch Horror film trailers?

This question was based on the frequency that people view horror film trailer in general. The following results suggest that on average people watch horror film trailers at least once a week or a minimum of once a month, this gives me an idea of the viewing habits of people who watch horror film trailers.

8.       How do you usually watch Horror film trailers?
Film trailers in general can be watched in a number of different ways, the answers given for this question specifically relate to the viewing habits of people with regards to horror film trailers. In a constantly changing technological environment this question was a good one to ask because it helped me recognise how much of an audience I would possibly achieve by placing my trailer online. The answers prove my assumptions that watching film trailers is popular now through online media outlets such as You-Tube this means I should reach a wider audience.

9.       Are there any films (in general) which you have gone to see based on the film trailer? 

This question was very important to ask because similarly to the one asked regarding their favourite films I can get an idea of the types of films that would be worth looking at the trailers to recognise how they were effective. The films mentioned were: The Unborn, The Strangers, Final Destination 3, 28 Days Later, Saw, and The Mist.

10.   What made you want to go and see the film based on the trailer?

A summary of response about each of the films is listed below. 

Saw: Renewed interest in horror as it looked original and very scary and also realistic. 

The Unborn: Enjoy the supernatural type horrors- looked good.

Final Destination 3: Enjoyed the previous film, had a different characteristic to this film- number of enjoyable plot twists.

28 Weeks Later: Became very popular, scenes are very realistic; the idea behind the film was interesting.

The Mist: Looked very scary, enjoyed the idea of the monsters, and wanted to see what it was like.
Based on these responses it clear that I should include some of the tradition horror codes and conventions, to enable me to generate a piece of horror media which is both original but also within the excepted standards.

11.   Are there any films you wanted to go and see but after watching the trailer you changed your mind?

The answers give to me by this question enable me to recognise where I could go wrong and hopefully to avoid this. Not every had an answer to give for this question, it could be considered to be rather ambiguous because someone may have seen a trailer and possibly liked the film but not bothered seeing it also some people said they could not think of any films however the films which some wrote were: The Village, The Happening, Ring 2, Hill Have Eyes 2 (remake), and Fog.

Focus Group Questionnaire
The focus group was conducted on six different Psychological horror enthusiasts; the questions specifically target this group of people.

1. What age range do you fall into? 
This question like the one on the general questionnaire will help me to recognise the age of the group of people I will be targeting my promotional pack at. Psychological horror usually has a more developed and older audience than horrors such as slasher, these results show that only 1 person under the age of 18 enjoys this genre.

2.Why do you enjoy watching Psychological Horror films?
jg   This question was asked because I felt it was necessary for me to know why people watch horror films, especially those in the psychological horror genre. as if i know why people enjoy horror films I can then use this knowledge when making my own trailer. Answers that were given in relation to this question were as follows, people enjoy the thrill and enjoyment that they get from horror films. People commented on how they have an adrenaline rush from horror films, and they also mentioned how watching horrror films is a form of escape.

3. What is one of your favourite Psychological Horror films? & 4. Why is this film one of your favourites?

This question like the one on the general horror questionnaire gives me further knowledge on the types of psychological horrors that people enjoy.

Saw: It created an interest in horror films for them, they also said that it kept them on the edge of their seat.

Paranormal Activity: There was a lot of tension created, the film felt very real and had created a lot of fear.

The Shinning: Very original, good story, the ending is cleverly done and unexpected.

The Ring: The idea of the use of the video tape which was cursed was unusual- keeps the viewer hooked.

Blair Witch Project: Based on true life story makes it feel all the more real and scary, overwhelming scare factor created.

The Exorcist: Very involoving and scary, very disturbing with a lot of gruesome special effects.

5. Are there any particular Characters that you liked from is genre of Horror films?

This question gives me the opportunity to study peoples favourite individual characters from these horror films. The antagonist from The Shining (Jack Torrance), The Saw: Jill, The Ring: Rachel Keller.

6. Is there any Psychological Horror which you didn’t really like, if so what was it called?

The question gives me the opportunity to understand the films that people who are a fan of Psychological horror, didn't like. They were as follows:

28 Weeks Later
Ring 2
Hills Have Eyes 2

7. Where do you usually watch Psychological Horror films?

This question was asked on the general questionnaire although I also though it would be a good idea to include this here as well since it will give me a better understanding of how people view Psychological horror films. Since this questionnaire was conducted on a focus group of enthusiast of horror, the answer here reflects this.

8. How often do you watch Psychological Horror film trailers?

Psychological Horror film fanatics typically view film trailers on a regular basis as can be shown here in the following graph.

9. What type of locations do you usually see when watching this type of genre of horror films?

 Gaining an idea of the type of locations used in horror films will give me an idea of suitable locations to shoot my horror film trailer.

  • Remote locations
  • Abandoned house/building
  • Forest
  • House
  • Abandoned warehouse
  • Farm
  • Remote Village
A common trait among locations for horror films is that they are either remote or very few people are around.

Ideas For Poster & Magazine Cover

Here is just a summary of my initial ideas for my magazine front cover and poster (symbiotic link):

In order to achieve my goal of creating a realistic and professional looking promotional pack I will need to ensure that I follow the codes and conventions as set out earlier in the blog. Firstly the most important thing for me to consider is to make sure I create some sort of symbiotic link between the pieces of media, to do this I will need  have added similarites which can be related to each other. Areas that I have considered I can create this similarites are; the use of colour, font type, and images used.

I will mostly likely use a similar image on the poster and magazine although I believe that it is best that they are not identical so that things can be kept fresh for the audience, although elements of the image are likely to be recognisable to audiences who have seen one or other ancillary pieces. Colours will also most likely be reused, along with font type.

Focus Group Questionnaire

The focus group was conducted with 6 people from ages ranging from 18 to 24 years old who all have a level of interest in Psychological Horror films. By conducting this focus group questionnaire I hope to become aware of possible ideas for my film trailer based on feedback for example, the type of films they like and then research these films to find out more, like the types of codes and conventions they use.

1.       What age range do you fall into? (Circle the one which applies to you)
13-15                             16-18                     19-21                     21-24                     25-29                     30-35    
2.       Why do you enjoy watching Psychological Horror films?

3.       What is one of your favourite Psychological Horror films?

4.       Why is this film one of your favourites? (E.g. is it the plot line, the character…)

5.       Are there any particular Characters that you liked from this genre of Horror films?

6.       Is there any Psychological Horror which you didn’t really like, if so what was it called?

7.       Where do you usually watch Psychological Horror films?
Home                    Cinema                 Other (Please State)

8.       How often do you watch Psychological Horror film trailers? (Circle the one which applies to you)
Everyday             A few times a week        Once a week      A few times a month     
Once a month   Several times a Year      A couple of times a year                               Once a Year
9.       How do you usually watch Horror film trailers? (Circle all that apply)
Internet               Cinema                 TV           Other

10.   What type of locations do you usually see when watching this type of genre of horror films?

General Questionnaire on Horror Films

Welcome to the questionnaire on Horror Films, by conducting research through this questionnaire I hope to gain a better insight into what type of horror films interest the particular age groups I have chosen, this will then give me an idea of what sort of horror film I should opt to produce. Also the questionnaire will hopefully tell me more about how often they watch film trailers and the methods they use to do so, and it will also give me ideas on what I could possibly include in my trailer.

1.       What Gender are you? (Circle the answer which applies)
Male                      Female
2.       What age range do you fall into? (Circle the one which applies to you)
13-15                     16-18                     19-21                     21-24                     25-29                     30-35    

3.       What is your favourite of type of Horror Films? (Circle the answers which applies)
Psychological (Where the killer is an ordinary person, plays with the persons mind)
Supernatural (Involving the unknown e.g. someone possessed, ghosts, paranormal)
Slasher (Where a lot of people are killed, a lot of bloody scenes.
Gothic (Where there is an element of mystery)
Other (If unsure just write a film as an example)

4.       What is your favourite horror film?

5.       Why is this film one of your favourites? (E.g. is it the plot line, the character…)

6.       Where do you usually watch Horror films?
Home                    Cinema                 Other (Please State)

7.       How often do you watch Horror film trailers? (Circle the one which applies to you)
Everyday             A few times a week        Once a week      A few times a month     
Once a month   Several times a Year      A couple of times a year        Once a Year

8.       How do you usually watch Horror film trailers? (Circle all that apply)
You-tube             Other Website (Please State)    
Cinema                 TV           Other   
9.       Are there any films (in general) which you have gone to see based on the film trailer? (Please list all which apply)

10.   What made you want to go and see the film based on the trailer? (i.e. how did the trailer interest you in the film)

11.   Are there any films you wanted to go and see but after watching the trailer you changed your mind? (If so, please say why)

Film Trailer Analysis of The Strangers (2008)

The Strangers is an American horror film released in 2008, the films sub-genre is Psychological horror. The film received a mixed bag of reviews from critics, it was however produced on what is considered a very small budget of $9 Million, and grossed overall approximately $83 million, and therefore was very financially successful. According to the films marketing it is inspired by true life events, the word 'inspired' however means that it is not strictly based directly on a true story. The film revolves around a couple who are taking a summer break in a house in the middle of nowhere after attending a wedding reception, they are then constantly harassed by a number of masked assailants before being knifed towards the end of film.

How are the genre and sub-genre signalled? 
The horror genre is signified in the trailer with the use of an iconic piece of visual audio effects present in a number of different horror film trailers- perhaps even overused, this is the use of a swing, accompanied by a squeaking designed to resonate with people who now unconsciously associate this sound with horror, it is almost like a code and convention of horror itself. Another giveaway in the trailer is the presence of a sub-plot the romance between the couple, also it is clear that this is not a central plot because there is the presence of a loud bang after the couple hug and then the camera looks over towards a window with curtains shut, the curtains along with the lights in the house make me assume that it is night-time setting. The slow start of the trailer allows the audience to gather a sense of what is happening. Midway through the trailer it is clear they are on their own and that there is no one around, this is a convention of the horror genre. Also the protagonists in the trailer are all wearing masks- a convention of many horror films.

Conventions, Iconography, Actors, & Directors?
There are a number of different conventions which are followed in this trailer to help create idyllic horror trailer. The first of these conventions is the use of a dark setting and a remote location far from anyway, the way in which I know they are in a remote location is because the male actor (Played by Scott Speedman) makes this very suggestion about it being far away from anywhere. All of the Protagonists are wearing masks to hide their faces, the masks appear to look like a dolls face, not knowing who the protagonist is means that speculation of the unknown creates more fear among the couple. The use of a number of different murder weapons used in many different types of horror films enables the audience to begin associate the trailer with similar films, the use of a knife by the female to protect herself from the intruders and the use of the axe by the protagonists. 

Scott Speedman is one of the actors who stars in this film, he is a British actor who is known for appearing in other horror films such as Dead Silence, and Underworld. Starring alongside him is Liv Tyler, well known for appearing in a number of different roles franchise Lord of The Rings, her horror film credits are however limited. The films budget may reflect why these particular actors were chosen. The Director of this film is Bryan Bertino, who is also the writer of the film. 

How is the audience lured in to watch the movie?
Film trailers often use a number of different tactics to lure their audience in, with the strangers this is done with the help of straps, one of which makes the suggestion that the film is based on a true story, knowing this audiences may then assume that because it is based on fact the realism of the movie increases therefore so does the fear that it creates. A steady build-up of tension is created, as the pace of the editing in the trailer increase; audiences may want to know how the protagonists got into the house, and how they intend to inflict terror on the couple. The job of the trailer is ultimately to get people to view the film, and how this is achieved is by ensuring that the ending of the film is not given away by doing this the audience will want to find out what happens which means viewing the entire film.

What is the trailers narrative structure?
The beginning of the trailer appears to look like the beginning of the film, where the setting is created and they have yet to experience any torment. As the trailer progresses it is clear that the trailer must have skipped a few scenes, the trailer largely appears to be in a chronological order from start to finish. Towards the end appears to possibly be the end as the Protagonist is looking down on the woman.

Which elements of the movies narrative are revealed?
A number of movie elements of the narrative are revealed in the trailer although not enough to give the narrative away. When the women asks why they are they terrorising her they reply 'because you were home', this would answer questions relating to what the motives are of the protagonist, although this answer could lead to more questions as it is unclear whether there is any other underlying reason or motive that drives them to kill. The protagonists are revealed to be in masks, and are terrorising the couple it is also clear that they had already broken into the house and for some reason or another decided to torment them first rather than kill them straight away, the scene when one of the protagonists can be seen in the distance behind the women relates to this.

How are the following used for effect and to create meaning?

Sound: The sound at the begging of the trailer helps to convey a sense of the romance between the couple, before this abruptly ends after bang from outside. The sound then changes to an intense squeal creating tension, this then changes to a few silent moments with speech, creating intense loneliness feeling, towards the end the soundtrack being played in the trailer skips and repeats itself and speeds up, amplifying the desperation of the characters.

Setting: The remote location creates the feeling that the actors are helpless and are unable to contact anyone, or achieve any help to stop the protagonists. 

Hair: The females hair is long and a golden brown colour, the males hair is much shorter and darker.

Camera: A long-shot is used in the trailer when looking outside; this enables the audience to get a sense of what is going on, and to see the bigger picture outside. A close-up shot is used when the female and male are hugging; this enables the audiences to read the woman’s emotions.
Props: Knife, Gun & Axe are all used as weapons. Also present are the record player, the mobile phone, and the ring to show the romantic link between the characters at the beginning.

Make-up: Little make-up appears to be used except possibly whitener to show that the characters are scarred, also the female character appears to be crying at some points, and therefore make-up may have been used.

Expressions: Expressions in the trailer range considerably depending on the mood of the characters, for example at the beginning of the trailer the characters appear to be genuinely normal and happy with a few smiles, this then changes to sadness, fear, and distress.

Mise-en-scene: The use of the fire in the trailer showing how the mobile has been burned and that there is no longer any hope. A squeaky swing is used like a convention of horror. A lot of the trailer captures the 1970's style ranch, very dull and brown/gold colours convey the idea that this trailer could have been set in the 70's.

Costumes: They are both wearing clothes that were worn at the wedding, the man is wearing a suite and the female is wearing a dress.

Lighting: The lighting is kept very low level, common among horror films.

Speed & Style of editing: Editing at the beginning is kept very slow, but soon gathers pace midway, before slowing down again, this style allows the audience to appreciate what’s happening but also helps to keep their interest by only showing quick teaser montages of shots.